#9: You’re Too Loud!

Reflecting Trumpet” by John Conyers, 1678. Is it just me or does this look like a star-bellied sneech is about to pop out of this thing?

Source: Royal Philosophical Society, London, Philosophical Transactions, No. 141 (Sept.–Nov,, 1678), 1027–1029. At

Select Sources for Episode 9: “You’re Too Loud!”

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Classical amphitheaters & urban media

Speech by Herochshe of the Kansa (Kaw) nation

  • William M. Clements, “From Performance Through Dialogism to Efficacy,” In Oratory in Native North America (Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press, 2022), 103–23.
  • Edwin James’ 1823 account of this speech in his book Edwin James, Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains, performed in the Years 1819 and 1820, Vol. II (London: Longman, 1823), 32–38.

Classical & other early megaphone tubes

  • Adrienne Mayor, Gods and Robots: Myths, Machines, and Ancient Dreams of Technology(Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2018), 187.
  • Louis Nicholas, “Codex Canadensis” at the Thomas Gilcrease Institute of American History and Art,, accessed 8 April, 2023.
  • “Plates of the Codex Canadensis” in Nancy Senior and Réal Ouellet, Codex Canadensis and the Writings of Louis Nicolas: The Natural History of the New World, Histoire Naturelle Des Indes Occidentales, edited by François-Marc Gagnon (Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2011), 93–256.

Classical & other early megaphone tubes

The auxetophone

Sound files created and/or recorded by other people


#8: You Ask Leading Questions

Leadership Advice from the Past: Make Sure Your Shoes Are On Point!

Source: Century Company, The Century Dictionary: An Encyclopedic Lexicon of the English Language, William Dwight Whitney, Supervisor (New York: Century Company, 1911), 4656. .

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Clothing & Sumptuary Laws

  • Donald Quataert, “Clothing Laws, State, and Society in the Ottoman Empire, 1720-1829” International Journal of Middle East Studies 29, no. 3 (1997): 403–25.
  • “A Thirteenth-Century Castilian Sumptuary Law,” Business History Review, 37, no. 1/2 (1963): 98–100,
  • Also mentioned is Giorgio Riello and Ulinka Rublack, The Right To Dress: Sumptuary Laws in a Global Perspective, c. 1200–1800 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2019).

Spanish Colonial Officials

  • Alejandro Cañeque, The King’s Living Image: The Culture and Politics of Viceregal Power in Colonial Mexico, eBook edition via EBSCO (New York: Routledge, 2004).
  • The main Spanish theorist of government mentioned in this section is the Franciscan friar named Juan de Santa María. His book is available via Google Books: Juan de Santa María (O.F.P.), Tratado de república y policía christiana para reyes y principes y para los que en el govierno tienen sus vezes (Barcelona: Sebastian de Cormellas, 1618). Available at

Blora region of Java, Indonesia

  • Adrian Vickers, A History of Modern Indonesia, Second Kindle Edition (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013), 34–40.


  • Louise Levathes, When China Ruled the Seas (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994).